The ongoing war in the Sudanese region of Darfur has killed hundreds of thousands of people and displaced millions since early 2003. Darfuris have fled homesteads that belonged to their families for generations. The massive assault by the government of Sudan and its ruthless proxy militias, the Janjaweed, on the non-Arab Darfurian population has included widespread killings and rape, and the sweeping destruction of homes, community structures, wells, crops, livestock, and personal assets.
In 2004, PHR began investigating the assault on Darfur, collecting eyewitness testimony from dozens of Darfurian refugees in neighboring Chad. We found that by eliminating access to food, water, and medicine, expelling people into inhospitable terrain and then, in many cases, blocking crucial outside assistance, the government and the Janjaweed created conditions calculated to destroy the non-Arab people of Darfur.
We called the actions genocide.
Our findings were published in the report “Darfur: Assault on Survival;” the use of rape by the Janjaweed militias in concert with the government of Sudan is well documented in the report “The Use of Rape as a Weapon of War in the Conflict in Darfur, Sudan.” In 2009, in partnership with the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, PHR produced “Nowhere to Turn: Failure to Protect, Support and Assure Justice for Darfuri Women,” documenting the scope and long-term impact of rape and other sexual violence experienced by these women.
PHR’s work in the region spurred the Stop Mass Rape in Darfur and Chad campaign and the Darfur Survival Campaign, which mobilized health professionals, students, and members of the general public to press for urgently needed security in Darfur and for the prosecution of perpetrators by the International Criminal Court for the crime of genocide. Sudan’s president, Omar al-Bashir, was later indicted for the crime of genocide, for his role in directing mass killings, rape, and the plundering and pillaging of civilian villages.