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Operation “Just Cause:” The Human Cost of Military Action in Panama

Operation “Just Cause:” The Human Cost of Military Action in Panama

    In December 1989, the United States invaded Panama and ousted General Manuel Noriega. The invasion was praised for its efficiency and for the low death tolls on both sides, including civilians.  

    Arriving just two weeks after the end of the invasion, a team of PHR experts traveled to Panama to document and report on the physical and psychological tolls of the invasion on non-military civilians. Gathering source materials and testimonies from other NGOs, medical staff, ordinary Panamanian citizens, and U.S. military and civilian authorities, PHR debunked the civilian death tolls provided by both the U.S. and Panamanian governments.